Lower Carbon Aviation Fuels

A Lower Carbon Aviation Fuel (LCAF) is defined in Annex 16 Vol IV as a "A fossil-based aviation fuel that  meets the CORSIA  Sustainability Criteria under this Volume." LCAF can serve as a complementary measure alongside Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) in helping to reduce aviation greenhouse gas (GHG) lifecycle emissions. The LTAG report includes a quantification of the potential contributions from LCAF towards the ICAO long term aspirational goal for international aviation (LTAG)..

An LCAF may be certified as a CORSIA eligible fuel if it meets the CORSIA Sustainability Criteria, including a 10% reduction in lifecycle emissions compared to the aviation fuel baseline of 89 gCO2e/MJ. For example, five billion liters of LCAF at 80 gCO2e/MJ could provide the equivalent GHG emissions reduction of about one billion liters of SAF at 45 gCO2e/MJ.

LCAF technologies

A variety of technologies and processes could lead to the production of LCAF, such as:

  • Energy conservation measures (energy efficient design of plans, increased production efficiencies, improved efficiency monitoring)

  • Process gas management (flaring management, venting control, fugitive emissions detection)

  • Use of renewable/low carbon electricity, gas and hydrogen.

  • Use of carbon capture and storage (CCS)

More details on these technologies are provided in the following references:

LCAF sustainability

LCAF sustainability criteria are defined in the ICAO document "CORSIA Sustainability Criteria for CORSIA Eligible Fuels". More specifically, Chapter 3 of this document defines sustainability criteria applicable to batches of CORSIA LCAF produced on or after 1 January 2024 (e.g. after the CORSIA Pilot Phase). These LCAF sustainability criteria cover carbon emissions, environmental and socio-economical aspects.

LCAF life cycle emissions

Under CORSIA, the life cycle emissions of LCAF needs to be obtained with the use of the methodologies defined in Chapter 7 of the ICAO document "CORSIA Methodology For Calculating Actual Life Cycle Emissions Values".


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