Electric and Hybrid Aircraft Platform for Innovation (E-HAPI)

A consistent increase has been noted in the electrification of aircraft systems, research on electrical propulsion, and investments in electric or hybrid aircraft designs. This website presents a non-extensive list of ongoing projects that have been identified globally, ranging from general aviation or recreational aircraft; business and regional aircraft; large commercial aircraft; and vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft (also called electric urban air-taxis). 

Most of these projects target an entry-in-service date between 2020 and 2030, and some are already commercially available. Four of the projects had their first flights in 2019 (Lilium, City Airbus, Boeing Aurora eVTOL, and Bye Aerospace Sun Flyer 2). 

Details on these projects, including MTOW, range, seat capacity, payload, cruise altitude and speed are provided in the table below. Currently there are no specific ICAO environmental standards in Annex 16 to cover such aircraft types. ICAO is monitoring the developments around these new entrants, and which specific SARPs will need to be developed.


  • The general aviation/recreational aircraft group consists of aircraft with MTOW from 300 to 1000 kg. These are mostly electric powered aircraft with a seat capacity of two. This category includes aircraft which are already produced and certified. 
  • The aircraft under the business and regional aircraft category claims longer flight range close to 1000 km with increased seat capacity (around ten). 
  • The large commercial aircraft category includes initiatives focused on hybrid-electric, single-aisle aircraft with seat capacities of 100-135 and targeted entry into service after 2030. 
  • Significant progress has also been made on the VTOL category over recent years, with seat capacities from one to five, MTOWs between 450 and 2200 kg and projected flight ranges from 16 to 300 km. These aircraft projects are only electric powered and aim to entry into service in the period of 2020-2025. 

Latest news

Details for all electric and hybrid aircraft projects are provided in the following table as of 1/April/2021. This information can also be found in the map at the bottom of the page.


ProjectTypeCategoryMTOW (KG)PaxTarget Entry in ServiceCruise altitude (FT)Cruise Speed (kt)Payload (KG)Range (KM)Engine power (kW)
​Tecnam P-Volt
Electric​​Regional Aircraft
Airspeeder MK.4
Faradair Bio Electric Hybrid Aircraft (BEHA)
Hybrid-Electric​​Regional Aircraft
EAG Hybrid Electric Regional Aircraft (HERA)
Large Commercial ​​24948
Heart Aerospace ES19

Airbus/Siemens/Rolls Royce E-Fan X 

(Cancelled - details here)
Hybrid-electricLarge commercial aircraftN.A.1002030N.A.N.A.6650N.A.2000
NASA X-57 MaxwellElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraftN.A.22020-20219000149.464N.A.16060 +10
Zunum Aero ZA10Hybrid-electricbusiness aircraft5216.3122020max. 25,000295113411271000+500
Uber ElevateElectricVTOLN.A.up to 420231,000 - 2,000130498.9697N.A.
Pipistrel Alpha Electro
ElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraft549.822018N.A.8520060060
Pipistrel Velis Electro

(TCDS available here)
General Aviation/ recreational aircraft
max 12000​​90
up to 50 minutes (plus VFR reserve)
Kitty Hawk CoraElectricVTOLN.A.22022up to 300095N.A.100N.A.
Kitty Hawk Flyer
(Cancelled - details here)
ElectricVTOLN.A.1 1017N.A.10.7
Airbus (A^3) VahanaElectricVTOL725.712020N.A.95113100360
Airbus City AirbusElectricVTOL2199.242023N.A.59N.A.968*100
Airbus/Audi Pop upElectricVTOLN.A.2N.A.N.A.N.A.N.A.130N.A.
Boeing Aurora eVTOLElectricVTOL798.322020N.A.48.6N.A.N.A.N.A.
Ehang 184ElectricVTOLN.A.1N.A.98435410016106
Volocopter 2XElectricVTOL4502201865622716027
Eviation  AliceElectricbusiness aircraft6349.89202132 80824012501046N.A.
Wright Electric/Easy JetElectricLarge commercial aircraftN.A.at least 1202027N.A.N.A.N.A.5393*260
Extra aircraft/ Siemens Extra 330LEElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraft1000.1220169843184 (top)N.A.N.A.260
Magnus Aircraft/Siemens eFusionhybrid diesel-electric General Aviation/ recreational aircraft600.12N.A.N.A.100-130N.A.110060
Solar Impulse  2ElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraftN.A.1N.A.2788738N.A.N.A.N.A.
Bye Aerospace Sun Flyer 2ElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraft861.82N.A.N.A.55-135363N.A.90
Ampaire TailWindElectricbusiness aircraftN.A.9N.A.N.A.N.A.N.A.161N.A.
Embraer DreammakerElectricVTOLN.A.N.A.20242,600-3,300N.A.N.A.N.A.N.A.
Bell NexusElectricVTOLN.A.4N.A.N.A.N.A.N.A.N.A.N.A.
Boeing Sugar VOLTHybrid-electricLarge commercial aircraftN.A.1352030-2050N.A.N.A.N.A.6482N.A.
DigiSky SkySparkElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraftN.A.2N.A.N.A.162 (top)N.A.50065
Hamilton aEroElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraft42012017N.A.92N.A.16080
Dufour aEro 2ElectricVTOLN.A.2N.A.N.A.173N.A.120N.A.
PC Aero Elektra One SolarElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraft3001N.A.196007610060032
PC Aero Elektra Two SolarElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraft4502N.A.6561637.8200almost unlimited23
PC Aero Elektra Solar TrainerElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraft6002N.A.76.626040032
Volta Volare DaVinciHybrid-electricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraftN.A.2+2201724 000160N.A.N.A.N.A.
Yuneec International  E430ElectricGeneral Aviation/ recreational aircraft4302N.A.984052N.A.N.A.N.A.

E-HAPI map for web.PNG

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