Electric and Hybrid Aircraft Platform for Innovation (E-HAPI)

A consistent increase is happening in the electrification of aircraft systems, research on electrical propulsion, and investments in electric or hybrid aircraft designs. This website presents a non-extensive list of ongoing projects that have been identified globally, ranging from general aviation or recreational aircraft; business and regional aircraft; large commercial aircraft; and vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft (also called electric urban air-taxis). 

Most of these projects target an entry-in-service date between 2020 and 2030, and some are already commercially available. Four of the projects had their first flights in 2019 (Lilium, City Airbus, Boeing Aurora eVTOL, and Bye Aerospace Sun Flyer 2). 

Details on these projects, including MTOW, range, seat capacity, payload, cruise altitude and speed are provided in the table below. Currently there are no specific ICAO environmental standards in Annex 16 to cover such aircraft types. ICAO is monitoring the developments around these new concepts, and which specific SARPs will need to be developed.


  • The general aviation/recreational aircraft group consists of aircraft with MTOW from 300 to 1000 kg. These are mostly electric powered aircraft with a seat capacity of two. This category includes aircraft which are already produced and certified. 
  • The aircraft under the business and regional aircraft category claims longer flight range close to 1000 km with increased seat capacity (around ten). 
  • The large commercial aircraft category includes initiatives focused on hybrid-electric, single-aisle aircraft with seat capacities of 100-135 and targeted entry into service after 2030. 
  • Significant progress has also been made on the VTOL category over recent years, with seat capacities from one to five, MTOWs between 450 and 2200 kg and projected flight ranges from 16 to 300 km. These aircraft projects are only electric powered and aim to entry into service in the period of 2020-2025. 

Details on these electric and hybrid aircraft projects are provided in the following dashboard.

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