The Bali Action Plan adopted in 2007 at the thirteenth Conference of the Parties (COP13) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), identified "adaptation" as one of the four building blocks required for a strengthened future response to climate change. Adaptation is now recognized as an essential component to enhance resilience to the impacts of climate change. The building blocks below are meant to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC through long-term cooperative action.
The terms “adaptation” and “mitigation” describe two actions that are
essential to tackle climate change. Figure below provides IPCC definitions to
explain the difference between terms adaptation and mitigation.
Strongly linked with adaptation and mitigation concepts, resilience is defined by IPCC as "the ability of a social, ecological, or socio-ecological system and its components to anticipate, reduce, accommodate, or recover from the effects of a hazardous event or trend in a timely and efficient manner".
According to the IPCC AR6 Report, climate resilient development
integrates adaptation measures and their enabling conditions with mitigation to
advance sustainable development for all. Pathways for advancing climate
resilient development are development trajectories that successfully integrate
mitigation and adaptation actions to advance sustainable development.
Comprehensive, effective, and innovative responses can harness synergies and reduce trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation to advance sustainable development. Building climate resilience requires engagement of all actors (governments, civil society and private sector) having the capacity to anticipate climate risks and hazards, by developing innovative and transformational responses.
Therefore, anticipation of and adaptation to these impacts are vital to ensure a reduction in the magnitude of consequences of climate change to the whole aviation system.
Under the umbrella of the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), ICAO develops and disseminates guidance for States and aviation stakeholders to address the need for the global aviation sector to adapt to changing climate.
ICAO Climate Adaptation Synthesis Report – click to get more information
ICAO Climate Risk Assessment, Adaptation and Resilience Guidance - click to get more information
These three separate, but related documents provide guidance to States, and aviation organizations on how to conduct climate change risk assessments and develop adaptation and resilience measures. They provide an overview of key climate change vulnerabilities which aviation organisations may need to address and a "menu" of options for aviation stakeholders to consider in their own planning. Each report is a standalone document.
The United Nations Sand and Dust Storm (SDS) Coalition
Dust storms pose a significant hazard for aviation. Not only do they drastically reduce visibility, they also are associated with very strong winds that can seriously affect an aircraft in flight.
States and organizations are becoming increasingly aware of the potential risks associated with climate change and will have to incorporate these risks into their future planning and design their adaptation strategies accordingly.
ICAO has been leading the development of standards and recommended practices to improve aviation environmental protection since the 1960s, however it is certain that more ambitious mitigation and adaptation activities are still needed. Therefore, ICAO's role and commitment in supporting 193 Member States on climate change adaptation topic with referring to SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) will continue to be a key in ICAO's work as the consequences of climate change need to be anticipated and effectively addressed.