Safety and Air navigation capacity and efficiency
In support of the implementation of Annex 19, Amendment 1, eight Safety Management Capacity-Building Workshops were delivered to a total of 204 participants from States and service providers:
— Bangkok, Thailand, 11-14 February (36 participants)
— Cairo, Egypt, 24-28 March (15 participants)
— Paris, France, 2-5 April (22 participants)
— Istanbul, Turkey, 8-12 July (18 participants)
— Mexico City, Mexico, 4-8 November (27 participants)
— Manilla, Philippines, 11-15 November (32 participants)
— Dakar, Senegal, 9-13 December (54 participants)
Framework for Implementation Effectiveness and Support
An additional 65 practical examples and tools were collected, validated and posted on the
Safety Management Implementation (SMI) public website which was established to complement the Fourth Edition of the
Safety Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859) in support of the diversity of the aviation community in implementing State safety programmes (SSP) and safety management systems (SMS). States and international organizations have been encouraged to contribute to this repository in order to promote a practical and effective approach to implementation.
Technical assistance activities
In line with the “No Country Left Behind (NCLB)” initiative, ICAO continued to provide States with Technical Assistance (TA) programmes in various forms, including TA projects utilizing the Safety Fund (SAFE) to help States strengthen their safety oversight capacity. In 2019, three projects were successfully completed; two projects were initiated; four are ongoing; and three projects are in the planning stages. Twenty-seven projects have been completed since the Fund’s establishment.
SAFE-funded TA projects have become effective vehicles for the enhancement of State safety oversight systems, including the timely resolution of Significant Safety Concerns (SSCs) in some States, as has been verified by Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) Continuous Monitoring Approach (CMA) activities.
The Twenty-second meeting of the Comprehensive Regional Implementation Plan for Aviation Safety in Africa Steering Committee (AFI Plan SC/22) was held on 15 May 2019 in Kampala, Uganda during the 6th Africa-Indian Ocean (AFI) Aviation Week. Information was provided on, among other topics, the update on the revised Abuja Safety and AFI Air Navigation Targets implementation, the report on the 2019 AFI Plan Aviation Infrastructure for Africa Gap Analysis, as well as the implementation of seven AFI assistance projects. Most notably, over the last seven years, the number of AFI States with an effective implementation (EI) score of 60 per cent and above increased from 14 to 32, while the number of Significant Safety Concerns (SSCs) decreased from 21 to only one. An extraordinary Steering Committee meeting was held in Montréal, Canada on 3 October 2019, to provide further updates on work programmes.
Flight Procedure Programme (FPP)
The two flight procedure programmes (FPP) established by ICAO in coordination with States serve to accelerate implementation of performance-based navigation (PBN) and realize the benefits for safety, access, efficiency, and reduced environmental impact. In 2019, a third FPP is in the process of being established the MID Region, for which funding is now secured.
Security and Facilitation
In order to implement the No Country Left Behind initiative, Regional Offices, in coordination with the Implementation Support and Development- Security Programme (ISD-SEC) and other partners providing assistance, generate Aviation Security Improvement Plans (ASIPs).
These ASIPs are short to mid-term, multi-phased plans for State capacity building based upon a needs assessment and the commitment of the State to improve their AVSEC capabilities.
In 2019, 13 States remained actively engaged in the implementation of an ASIP, with 23 needs assessments and targeted deliveries of assistance being provided in these States throughout the year. Additionally, 15 assistance activities were conducted in States on a cost recovery or ad hoc assistance basis.
Through the promulgation of an annual AVSEC training schedule and under the auspices of the NCLB initiative, ISD-SEC provides all Member States the opportunity to receive training in order to develop their capacity to implement a sustainable national aviation security system.
Such training is primarily provided through the Aviation Security Training Centre (ASTC) Network, which is managed by ISD-SEC in coordination with the ICAO Global Aviation Training (GAT) Section.
In 2019, a total of 35 ICAO-sponsored training events were offered throughout the ASTC network benefiting 517 AVSEC personnel from 100 Member States. In addition, four ICAO Aviation Security Instructor Certification sessions were held in 2019 in four regions, resulting in a total of 310 ICAO-certified aviation security instructors in all ICAO regions and all ICAO languages.
ICAO collaborated with the Singapore Aviation Academy (SAA) to develop and deliver the Directors General of Civil Aviation Programme on Aviation Security, which enriches awareness and understanding of the international civil aviation security framework and its compliance requirements.
ICAO also partnered with China to develop and deliver the CAA Senior and Middle Managers Training Course, with the objective of enabling senior and middle managers to lead, manage and continuously monitor the implementation of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), mainly focusing on aviation security, in their States. ICAO also partners with donor States to provide aviation security assistance to States in need, identifying sites to host the training and providing training materials and instructors, as needed. ICAO worked with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in the implementation of the UNODC-World Customs Organization (WCO) Container Control Programme (CCP). In this regard, ICAO primarily delivers the ICAO Air Cargo and Mail Security Course and Risk Management Workshop, as well as technical guidance, to eligible members of the CCP.
Additionally, ICAO partnered with Airports Council International (ACI), drafting and providing input into the training materials for the Management of Airport Security Course and providing ICAO-certified aviation security instructors to deliver the course.
The goal of the PMC is to provide aviation security professionals with best practices relating to the implementation of security systems to improve airport security operations. ICAO led the 2019 review and update of PMC materials to ensure alignment with current aviation security guidance and best practices.
Capacity-Building and Assistance to States
Assistance, Capacity-building and Training for the CORSIA Programme (ACT-CORSIA)
To better support its Member States for timely implementation of CORSIA, ICAO continued to undertake ACT‐ CORSIA (Assistance, Capacity-building and Training for the CORSIA Programme).
Buddy Partnerships among States have been established across the Regions. Under the first phase of ACT‐CORSIA Buddy Partnerships, technical experts provided by donor States worked together with the CORSIA Focal Points of recipient States to provide on‐site training, and closely followed up on the preparation and implementation of the recipient States’ CORSIA Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system (in particular on the development and approval of Emissions Monitoring Plans, as well as on the establishment of national and/or regional regulatory frameworks).
CORSIA Buddy Partnerships across all ICAO Regions were established, involving more than 120 States. The most up‐to‐date information regarding on‐site training activities by donor State experts with recipient States is provided on the ICAO CORSIA website, enabling full transparency of the assistance progress under the ICAO umbrella.
Building upon this successful and coordinated approach under ICAO, the second phase of the CORSIA Buddy Partnerships was established in 2019, with a focus on reporting and verification under Annex 16, Volume IV. Technical experts from donor States trained by ICAO in May 2019 have been undertaking on site training in recipient States under the second phase of CORSIA buddy partnerships.
Other ICAO capacity-building activities
ICAO-EU project funded by the EU and implemented by ICAO was concluded in 2019. It supported 14 selected States in Africa and the Caribbean with the development and implementation of States’ Action Plans, as well as the establishment of CO2 emissions monitoring systems for international aviation.
Project objectives were achieved beyond the expected results. All 14 selected States developed and submitted fully quantified Action Plans, and established National Action Plan Teams with relevant stakeholders from the aviation sector to oversee their implementation. An Aviation Environmental System (AES) was installed in each State as a tool to monitor CO2 emissions from international aviation.
Two solar-at-gate pilot projects were implemented under the project, which consisted of the installation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system and gate electrification equipment to power aircraft during ground operations at international airports in Douala, Cameroon and Mombasa, Kenya. The installed capacity of these projects is of 1.25 MWp and 500 kWp respectively. The projects are expected to eliminate over 4 000 tonnes of CO2 per year and to serve more than 7 500 flights per year.
The project also funded four feasibility studies on the use of sustainable aviation fuels (Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Kenya and Burkina Faso), and one on the use of solar energy at an airport (Trinidad and Tobago).
ICAO-United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF) project implemented by ICAO was also concluded in 2019, and supported States, in particular developing States and Small Island Developing States (SIDS), in implementing emission reduction measures. Funded by the Global Environment Facility, the project included the implementation of two solar‐at‐gate pilot projects at two international airports in Jamaica, which became models for other airports to follow as an emission mitigation strategy. In addition, ICAO developed a set of four guidance documents under this project on: financing; renewable energy; sustainable aviation fuels; and regulatory and organizational measures. A marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve tool was also developed to compare the cost‐ effectiveness of emissions mitigation initiatives.
Voluntary Support for ICAO’s Environmental Work
Support for ICAO’s work on aviation environmental protection was provided in the form of in-kind contributions from France, South Africa and the European Union, and financial contributions from Chile, Finland, Paraguay, Republic of Korea and Malaysia.