In general, ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) in various Annexes support two distinct methods for managing fatigue:
prescriptive approach that requires the Service Provider to comply with duty time limits defined by the State, while managing fatigue hazards using the SMS processes that are in place for managing safety hazards in general ; and
Getting enough sleep (both quantity and quality) on a regular basis is essential for restoring the brain and body. The drive for sleep increases with time awake.
Reducing the amount or the quality of sleep, even for a single night, decreases the ability to function and increases sleepiness the next day.
The circadian body clock affects the timing and quality of sleep and produces daily highs and lows in performance on various tasks.
Workload can contribute to an individual’s level of fatigue. Low workload may unmask physiological sleepiness while high workload may exceed the capacity of a fatigued individual.
Knowledge of the operational and organizational context, as well as understanding of the constraints and motivations of the workforce must be considered alongside the science when determining the safety risk that a fatigue-impaired individual represents in that context.
State is responsible for providing a regulatory framework that enables fatigue management and ensuring that the Service Provider is managing fatigue-related risks to achieve an acceptable level of safety performance.
Service Providers are responsible for providing fatigue management education, implementing work schedules that enable individuals to perform their duties safely, and having processes for monitoring and managing fatigue hazards.
Individuals are responsible for arriving fit for duty, including making appropriate use of non-work periods to obtain sleep, and for reporting fatigue hazards.