Conversion processes

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In order to be used in commercial flights, a sustainable aviation fuel (SAF)  has to comply with ASTM  D4054. As of June 2020, 8 conversion processes have been approved for SAF production: 


ASTM reference
​Conversion process
​Possible Feedstocks
​Blending ratio by volume
​Commercialization proposals / Projects
​ASTM D7566 Annex​ 1
​Fischer-Tropsch hydroprocessed synthesized paraffinic kerosene
FT​Coal, natural gas, biomass​
50%​​Fulcrum Bioenergy, Red Rock Biofuels, SG Preston, Kaidi, Sasol, Shell, Syntroleum
ASTM D7566 Annex 2
Synthesized paraffinic kerosene from hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids​​HEFA
Bio-oils, animal fat, recycled oils​50%
World Energy, Honeywell UOP, Neste Oil, Dynamic Fuels, EERC​
ASTM D7566 Annex ​3
​Synthesized iso-paraffins from hydroprocessed fermented sugars
SIP​Biomass used for sugar production​10%​Amyris, Total​
ASTM D7566 Annex ​4
​Synthesized kerosene with aromatics derived by alkylation of light aromatics from non-petroleum sources
FT-SKA​Coal, natural gas, biomass​
ASTM D7566 Annex ​5
​Alcohol to jet synthetic paraffinic kerosene
ATJ-SPK​Biomass from ethanol or isobutanol production​​50%Gevo, Cobalt, Honeywell UOP, Lanzatech, Swedish Biofuels, Byogy​
ASTM D7566 Annex 6
​Catalytic hydrothermolysis jet fuel
​Triglycerides such as soybean oil, jatropha oil, camelina oil, carinata oil, and tung oil
​Applied Research Associates (ARA)
ASTM D7566 Annex 7
​Synthesized paraffinic kerosene from hydrocarbon-hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids
​IHI Corporation
ASTM D1655
​Fats, oils, and greases (FOG) from petroleum refining

In order to be eligible for use within the ICAO Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), SAF must also meet a set of sustainability criteria. More information on CORSIA eligible fuels is available on the dedicated CORSIA Eligible Fuels webpage. 

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