Conversion processes

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In order to be used in commercial flights, a sustainable aviation fuel (SAF)  has to comply with ASTM  D4054. As of October 2021, 9 conversion processes have been approved for SAF production.


In order to be eligible for use within the ICAO Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), SAF must also meet a set of sustainability criteria. More information on CORSIA eligible fuels is available on the dedicated CORSIA Eligible Fuels webpage. 



ASTM reference
​Conversion process
​Abbreviation
​Possible Feedstocks
​Blending ratio by volume
​Commercialization proposals / Projects
​ASTM D7566 Annex​ 1
​Fischer-Tropsch hydroprocessed synthesized paraffinic kerosene
FT​Coal, natural gas, biomass​
50%​​Fulcrum Bioenergy, Red Rock Biofuels, SG Preston, Kaidi, Sasol, Shell, Syntroleum
ASTM D7566 Annex 2
Synthesized paraffinic kerosene from hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids​​HEFA
Bio-oils, animal fat, recycled oils​50%
World Energy, Honeywell UOP, Neste Oil, Dynamic Fuels, EERC​
ASTM D7566 Annex ​3
​Synthesized iso-paraffins from hydroprocessed fermented sugars
SIP​Biomass used for sugar production​10%​Amyris, Total​
ASTM D7566 Annex ​4
​Synthesized kerosene with aromatics derived by alkylation of light aromatics from non-petroleum sources
FT-SKA​Coal, natural gas, biomass​
​50%
Sasol​
ASTM D7566 Annex ​5
​Alcohol to jet synthetic paraffinic kerosene
ATJ-SPK​Biomass from ethanol or isobutanol production​​50%Gevo, Cobalt, Honeywell UOP, Lanzatech, Swedish Biofuels, Byogy​
ASTM D7566 Annex 6
​Catalytic hydrothermolysis jet fuel
​CHJ
​Triglycerides such as soybean oil, jatropha oil, camelina oil, carinata oil, and tung oil
50%
​Applied Research Associates (ARA)
ASTM D7566 Annex 7
​Synthesized paraffinic kerosene from hydrocarbon-hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids
HC-HEFA-SPK​​Algae
10%​
​IHI Corporation
​ASTM D1655
 Annex A1


FOG ​Co-processing

Fats, oils, and greases (FOG) from petroleum refining
​5%
ASTM D1655
 Annex A1

​FT Co-processing
Fischer-Tropsch (FT) biocrude as an allowable feedstock for petroleum co-processing
​5%
Fulcrum



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