Operational (OPS) Safety Risks



Operational safety risks arise during the delivery of a service or the conduct of an activity (e.g. operation of an aircraft, airports or of air traffic control). Operational interactions between people and technology, as well as the operational context in which aviation activities are carried out, are taken into consideration to identify performance limitations and hazards. 


High-risk Categories of Occurences (HRCs)



The vision of the GASP is to achieve and maintain the goal of zero fatalities in commercial operations by 2030 and beyond.


A series of HRCs need to be addressed to mitigate the risk of fatalities. The types of occurrences deemed global HRCs (previously referred to as "global safety priorities") were selected based on actual fatalities, high fatality risk per accident or the number of accidents and incidents.



The following global HRCs (G-HRCs), in no particular order, have been identified for the 2023-2025 edition of the GASP:


  •  Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT)
  • Loss of control in-flight (LOC-I)
  • Mid-air collision (MAC)
  • Runway excursion (RE)
  • Runway incursion (RI)


For information on accident statistics, the HRCs and other safety data can be found in the ICAO Annual Safety Report.


The OPS roadmap provides safety enhancement initiatives (SEIs) to meet the GASP goal related to a continuous reduction of operational safety risks, and actions to address the G-HRCs presented in the GASP.



Runway excursion (RE)

Loss of control in-flight (LOC-I)


Controlled flight into terrrain (CFIT)
Runway incursion (RI)Mid-air collision (MAC)


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