As stated in the Declaration of Global Principles for the Liberalization of International Air Transport adopted at the Worldwide Air Transport Conference (ATConf/5), Montreal, 24-28 March 2003, "the establishment and application of competition law represents and important safeguard of fair competition as States progress towards a liberalized market place."
Furthermore, ICAO policies and guidance include safeguard measures designed to ensure the sustained and effective participation of all States including the principle of giving special consideration to the interests and needs of developing countries. These are available in ICAO Doc 9587 Policy and Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of International Air Transport and Doc 9626 Manual on the Economic Regulation of International Air Transport.
A summary of these ICAO policies and guidance can be consulted at the ICAO Policy and Guidance Materials on Competition page.
Some states and regional organizations have adopted measures to address unfair practices in international air transport.