Under this section, ICAO has compiled a number of different mechanisms and arrangements aimed at preventing anti-competitive behavior and fostering compatible regulatory approaches to competition through bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation.
Bilateral cooperation in the field of competition may be conducted through arrangements between competition authorities intended to provide a framework for discussions on competition issues in view of taking consistent approaches. In the area of air transport, competition provisions may be included in bilateral Air Services Agreements to promote cooperation between the parties when applying their respective competition laws to air transport between them.
At regional level, membership in regional entities such as the European Union (EU), the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), the East African Community (EAC), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) and the Western African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) may, to a varying extent, include common competition policies and legal frameworks as well as structured coordination to ensure consistent implementation.
At a more practical level, competition networks have been established such as the European Competition network (ECN) or the ASEAN Experts Group on Competition (AEGC).
Finally, forms of multilateral cooperation in the field of competition have also been developed with the help of competition authorities and regulators who participate and contribute to international fora such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The UNCTAD has developed a Model Law on Competition to serve as guidance for States.