Competition Practices

While there are significant differences between competition policies adopted by different States and regional organizations, a number of common types of competition practices can be identified. 

For the purpose of this Compendium, competition practices include any policies, regulatory practices or actions by States or regional organizations – other than national/regional competition laws and regulations and cooperation arrangements – aimed at, or having the effect of, addressing competition-related issues in international air transport.

These practices are presented here as Competition Clauses, Model Clauses, and any other types of Safeguards that do not fall under the aforementioned categories.

​Competition Clauses

Model Clauses

Other Safeguards

In order for ICAO to keep enhancing the coverage and the quality of the information provided in this Compendium, States, regional organizations, competition authorities and other interested parties involved in competition issues in the area of air transport are encouraged to submit contributions for additions, changes or updates to the Secretariat at:


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