Consumer Protection


Along with the continuing liberalization of air transport regulation, the protection, and improvement of airline passenger rights has gained gr​eater importance, particularly but not exclusively in major markets. A significant number of States, in recent years, have adopted regulatory measures that address some of the issues such as denied boarding compensation; assistance to passengers in the event of delays and cancellation; price transparency; and access for disabled passengers. ​


​​​ICAO's database on "Consumer Protection Rules" can be accessed HERE

This non-exhaustive database was developed with a view to provide easy and quick access to relevant information. Whenever possible, hyperlinks have been inserted as references. In certain cases, the ​material is only available in a language other than English.​

At the industry level, many airlines have adopted voluntary commitments (i.e. non-legally binding self-regulation) to clarify or improve their policies or practices with regard to certain customer services (such as fare offers, ticket refunds, denied boarding, flight delays and cancellations, baggage handling, response to complaints, and special passenger needs), often in response to public pressure and to avoid regulatory measures.

A summary of the airline and governmental responses to some of the more prominent consumer protection  issues is provided here (pdf) (revised, December 2016).



​​​ICAO Consume​r Protection Newsletter​​​​

October 2017 

​November 2017

ICAO's work

ICAO has done considerable work in the field of consumer protection, including the development of guidance material in such areas as conditions of carriage, fare guarantee, baggage, tariff disclosure, denied boarding and code sharing. This guidance can, among others, be found in the Policy and Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of International Air Transport (Doc 9587).
Pursuant to the recommendation of the Sixth Worldwide Air Transport Conference (ATConf/6), and as endorsed by the Council and the Assembly (A38), ICAO has developed, after consultation with States, the Core Principles on Consumer Protection. These are designed as guidance for States and concerned industry stakeholders in dealing with consumer protection matters. Recognizing the dynamic nature of the air transport industry, the Core Principles will be a “living document”, which would be refined and improved from time to time in the process of their implementation, based on the experiences gained and feedback received. The adoption of these Core Principles is a significant step towards regulatory and operational convergence and compatibility in this area.


ICAO's Core Principles on Consumer Protection

Guidance material for air transport users has also been prepared to assist States in publishing or encouraging the publication of booklets intended to inform air passengers and shippers of their rights and obligations. ​



Consumer Proection official.png​​

A more dynamic and user-friendly format of the provisions of the Core Principle can be found here​.

​​ICAO encourages all Member States and concerned industry stakeholders to give regard to and apply the ICAO Core Principles in policy-making, and in regulatory and operational practices.
In accordance with the eleventh meeting of the ICAO air Transport Regulation Panel (ATRP/11), held in June 2012, ICAO has carried out a study (pdf) on the effectiveness of consumer protection regulations.
The project proposal “iPLAN: Planning for Travel Disruptions” of the ICAO Voluntary Fund can be found here. 



    1. In this regard, the following indicative list, together with airlines’ conditions of contract/carriage, could serve as a checklist of many of the consumer interest issues a State may wish to monitor: the availability of lower fares including fares on websites;

      • reservation, ticketing and refund rules;

      • advertisements;

      • airline’s commercial and operational conditions;

      • check-in procedures;

      • handling of and compensation for flight delays, cancellation, and denied boarding;

      • baggage handling and liability;

      • operational performance disclosure such as on-time performance and complaints; and

      • assistance for disabled and special-needs passengers (i.e. people with reduced mobility).

    2. Interlining refers to transportation on more than one air carrier.

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