This document presents an updated list of ten (10) key principles and twenty (20) recommendations which consist of the original eleven (11) recommendations of the CART Report in June 20201, the three (3) additional recommendations presented in the CART Phase II High-Level Cover Document in November 20202, the six (6) additional recommendations and two (2) revised recommendations presented in the CART Phase III High-Level Cover Document in March 20213, and the four (4) revised recommendations adopted in October 2021.


Key Principles for a Safe, Secure and Sustainable Recovery


A safe, secure and sustainable restart and recovery of the global aviation sector is best supported by an internationally harmonized approach based on the following ten (10) key principles:


​1. Protect People: Harmonized but Flexible Measures. States and industry need to work together to put in place harmonized or mutually accepted risk-based measures to protect passengers, crew, and other staff throughout the travel experience.​
​2.Work as One Aviation Team and Show Solidarity. The respective plans of ICAO, States, international and regional organizations, and the industry should complement and support each other. While national and regional needs may require different approaches, States should harmonize responses to the extent possible, in line with ICAO's standards, plans and policies.
​3.Ensure Essential Connectivity. States and industry should maintain essential connectivity and global supply chains, especially to remote regions, isolated islands and other vulnerable States.
​4.​​Actively Manage Safety-, Security- and Health-related Risks.​ States and industry should use data-driven systemic approaches to manage the operational safety-, security-, and health-related risks in the restart and recovery phases, and adapt their measures accordingly.
​5.Make Aviation Public Health Measures. Work with Aviation Safety and Security Systems. Health measures must be carefully assessed to avoid negatively impacting aviation safety and/or security.
​6.​​Strengthen Public Confidence.​ States and industry need to work together, harmonizing practical measures and communicating clearly, to ensure passengers are willing to travel again.
​7. Distinguish Restart from Recovery. Restarting the industry and supporting its recovery are distinct phases which may require different approaches and temporary measures to mitigate evolving risks.​
​8. Support Financial Relief Strategies to Help the Aviation Industry. States and financial institutions, consistent with their mandates, should consider the need to provide direct and/or indirect support in various proportionate and transparent ways. In doing so, they should safeguard fair competition and not distort markets or undermine diversity or access.​
​9.Ensure Sustainability. Aviation is the business of connections, and a driver of economic and social recovery. States and industry should strive to ensure the economic and environmental sustainability of the aviation sector.
10. Learn Lessons to Improve Resilience. As the world recovers, the lessons learned have to be used to make the aviation system stronger.




Recommendation 1

During the global COVID-19 outbreak, Member States should continue updating COVID-19 Contingency Related Differences (CCRDs) in the Electronic Filing of Differences (EFOD) system.


Recommendation 2

Member States should avoid retaining any COVID-19 related alleviation measures as soon as normal operations are resumed. Differences that remain after the contingency if any should be filed in the EFOD system.


Recommendation 3

Member States should expedite the development of guidance for safety management of new operations or operation change during this crisis.


Recommendation 4

Global and regional harmonization of procedures is essential to strengthen public and passenger confidence in air travel. To that end, Member States should establish aviation public health procedures aligned with the guidance in the Take-off: Guidance for Air Travel through the COVID-19 Public Health Crisis.


Recommendation 5

In order to support the fastest possible return to normal aviation operations, Member States should regularly review the necessity of continuing the application of risk mitigation measures as the risk of COVID-19 transmission diminishes; and measures which are no longer needed should be discontinued.


Recommendation 6

Member States that have not done so should immediately establish a National Air Transport Facilitation Committee (or equivalent) as required by Annex 9 to increase national level cross-sectoral coordination.


Recommendation 7

Member States should systematically use a Passenger Health Locator Form to ensure identification and traceability of passengers to help limit the spread of the disease and resurgence of the pandemic.


Recommendation 8

While temporarily adapting their security-related measures, using the guidance provided, Member States should strengthen their oversight system to ensure these measures are consistently applied with the objective of protecting aviation against acts of unlawful interference.


Recommendation 9

Member States should take measures to ensure that relevant personnel are provided training to identify and manage unruly passenger situations related to non-respect of essential aviation public health and safety measures.


Recommendation 10

Member States should consider appropriate extraordinary emergency measures to support financial viability and to maintain an adequate level of safe, secure and efficient operations, which should be inclusive, targeted, proportionate, transparent, temporary and consistent with ICAO's policies, while striking an appropriate balance among the respective interests without prejudice to fair competition and compromising safety, security and environmental performance.


Recommendation 11

Member States should facilitate information-sharing and exchange on their actions and best practices by contributing to an ICAO database of measures.


Recommendation 12 (Revised in March 2021)

Member States should plan to put in place the necessary measures to mitigate risks associated with prolonged regulatory alleviations, and to avoid extending alleviations (both core and extended COVID-19 Contingency Related Differences (CCRDs)) beyond 31 March 2021. States that are in need of alternative actions to enable service providers and personnel to maintain the validity of their certificates, licenses, and other approvals during the COVID-19 pandemic should use the Targeted Exemptions (TE) system from 1 April 2021. In addition, States are encouraged to facilitate cross-border access to medical and training facilities, including flight simulation training devices used for flight crew (national and foreign) and Air Traffic Controllers (ATCOs) to maintain their certifications, recency of experience, and proficiency.


Recommendation 13 (Revised in October 2021)

Member States using testing in their COVID-19 risk management strategy should apply the approach outlined in the ICAO Manual on COVID-19 Cross Border Risk Management (Doc 10152), recognizing that robust testing strategies allow for early detection of potentially infectious travellers. However, testing may not be universally recommended by public health authorities as a routine health screening method due to priority and resource considerations.


Recommendation 14 (Revised in March 2021)

Member States considering the formation of a Public Health Corridor (PHC) should actively share information with each other to implement PHCs in a harmonized manner. To facilitate the implementation, the ICAO Implementation Package (iPack) on establishing a PHC is available to States, in addition to PHC-specific tools published on the ICAO website and the App providing a template PHC arrangement between States.


Recommendation 15

Member States are urged to implement Addenda Nos. 1 and 2 to the Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (Doc 9284) without delay in order to facilitate the transport of COVID-19 vaccines and to permit certain dangerous goods to be carried on board aircraft to provide for a safe, sanitary operating environment for passengers and crew. If any State wishes to be more restrictive, they are reminded of their obligation to file a State variation to the Technical Instructions.


Recommendation 16

Member States are encouraged to consider the temporary lifting of restrictions to air cargo operations, including but not limited to granting extra-bilateral rights, in particular for all-cargo services, to foreign airlines to facilitate the transportation of essential goods, supplies and COVID-19 vaccines.


Recommendation 17 (Revised in October 2021)

Member States should implement and recognize certificates of testing, recovery and vaccination based on the protocol, minimum dataset and implementation approaches outlined in the ICAO Manual on COVID 19 Cross-Border Risk Management (Doc 10152) to facilitate air travel. States are encouraged to ensure such certificates are secure, trustworthy, verifiable, convenient to use, compliant with data protection legislation and internationally/globally interoperable. Proof of vaccination could be based upon the World Health Organization (WHO) International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) and should be issued in an internationally/ globally interoperable format aligned with the technical specifications and guidance outlined by the WHO. Existing solutions should be considered and could incorporate a Visible Digital Seal (VDS-NC) or other interoperable formats from regional or global intergovernmental bodies, or internationally recognized organizations.


Recommendation 18 (Revised in October 2021)

Member States should facilitate access for air crew to vaccination as quickly as possible as recommended by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) Stage II for air crew who work on aircraft that carry goods and no passengers and Stage III for other aviation workers.


Recommendation 19 (Revised in October 2021)

Member States are encouraged to promote, to the greatest extent possible, a harmonized and inclusive approach to facilitate international travel and entry of fully vaccinated and recovered passengers. In this regard, Member States should consider alleviating or exempting testing and/or quarantine measures for individuals who have been fully vaccinated or those with a history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection who are no longer infectious. The alleviations and exemptions should be made in accordance with a State’s accepted risk threshold, national framework, the COVID-19 situation and the multilayer risk management framework described in the Take-off: Guidance for Air Travel through the COVID-19 Public Health Crisis. In view of the global unequal access to vaccines and the unsuitability or intolerance of use of vaccines by some individuals, vaccination should not be a prerequisite for international travel.


Recommendation 20

Member States should ensure that ICAO’s CART guidance is taken into consideration by the wider State administration in the decision-making processes on national recovery planning.





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