Related ICAO Publications

Annex 1 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation — Personnel Licensing, Eleventh Edition, July 2011. Order No. AN 1.

Chapter 6 of Annex 1 defines the three classes of Medical Assessment for aviation license holders and spells out the physical and mental requirements for Medical Assessments, including testing and performance requirements for vision, colour perception and hearing.


The third edition, 2012, of the Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984) is currently available on the ICAO website in English only. A hard copy version is available for purchase from ICAO Document Sales Unit.
The main purpose of the Medical Manual is to assist and guide designated medical examiners and Licensing Authorities in decisions relating to the medical fitness of license applicants as specified in Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing. It is also envisaged that the manual might be useful to supplement properly supervised theoretical and practical post-graduate training in aviation medicine. Topics discussed in the Manual include Licensing Practices, Aviation Physiology, Medical Assessment, Aviation Pathology and Aviation Medical Training.
Manual on Prevention of Problematic Use of Substances in the Aviation Workplace (Doc 9654-AN/945), First Edition, 1995. Order No. 9654. Available in Arabic, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
The global spread of psychoactive substances, their general availability, and the ever-increasing number of addictive users are becoming a growing threat to aviation safety in many States. This document was developed to provide States with a tool for decision-makers to use when deciding on the best policy for their States and for State licensing authorities when planning national strategies; at the same time, airlines and other employers can use this document to implement, on a practical level, established policies and strategies in a cost-effective way, with due regard for both aviation safety and the welfare of their employees.
The manual is organized into five chapters: Introduction; Education of the Aviation Workforce; Identification, Treatment and Rehabilitation; Employment Consequences of Problematic Substance Use; and Biochemical Testing Programmes, followed by several attachments providing examples of comprehensive prevention programmes and detailed procedures as well as general information and advice.
Manual on Laser Emitters and Flight Safety (Doc 9815-AN/447), First Edition, 2003. Order No. 9815. Available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
Laser technique can produce a beam of light of such intensity that permanent damage to human tissue, in particular the retina of the eye, can be caused instantaneously, even at a distance of more than 10 km. At lower intensities, laser beams can seriously affect visual performance without causing physical damage to the eyes. In view of the increasing risk to flight safety posed by the more widespread use of laser emitters around airports, ICAO has developed laser-related SARPs that are now included in Annexes 11 and 14 to the Convention.
To provide guidance for the implementation of these SARPs, ICAO has written a manual focussing on the medical, physiological and psychological effects on flight crew of exposure to laser emissions. The information and guidance material provided in this manual is primarily directed to decisions-makers at government level, laser operators, air traffic control officers, aircrew, aviation medicine consultants to and medical officers of the regulatory authorities, and doctors involved in in clinical aviation medicine, occupational health and preventive medicine. The manual is aimed both at reducing the need for regulatory authorities to seek individual expert advice and at reducing inconsistencies between Contracting States in the implementation of national regulations.
In addition, it can be used to support training provided by operators to flight crew with respect to the effect of laser emitters on operational safety.
The manual contains chapters on the physics of lasers; laser hazard evaluation; laser beam bioeffects and their hazards to flight operations; operational factors and training of aircrew; airspace safety; documentation of incidents after suspected laser beam illumination; and medical examination following suspected laser beam illumination.

FITNESS TO FLY - A Medical Guide For Pilots

First Edition, 2018. Available in English.


Developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in collaboration with the International Federation of Airline Pilots' Associations (IFALPA) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA), this guide is focused on the health risks pilots face during their careers and the medical recommendations that help them mitigate those risks.


This handbook will help you understand the most common health issues facing pilots today, learn how to reduce major risks to mental and physical health, manage your nutrition, sleep and medication for optimal flight performance.


It is easy-to-read, motivating and educational, with engaging content, graphics and charts to empower you to limit your health risks and set your own goals and strategies to maintain fitness to fly and a balanced lifestyle.


The recommendations contained in this guide are also applicable for cabin crew, air traffic controllers and anyone working within the aviation industry.

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