Agenda for the Second High-level Conference on Aviation Security (HLCAS/2)


a) Current major risks to international civil aviation

b) Combating insider threat

c) Effective sharing of information

The security threat to aviation is dynamic, as terrorists adapt to a changing security environment. While the threat varies from place to place, it is also extremely mobile. For example, the transportation of improvised explosives devices (IEDs) through the cargo system can result in IEDs taking unpredictable routes via States that do not regard themselves as being directly under threat. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that terrorists have continued to seek insiders within the aviation industry to help facilitate attacks (as demonstrated by recent attacks). Against this backdrop, and taking into account risk-based and outcomes-focused approaches, the Conference will conclude on the need for a common and consistent global approach to dealing with the insider threat. The Conference will also discuss the importance of effective mechanisms to ensure that threat and risk information is shared with those who need it (between States and within States, including with industry).


The Conference will be invited to put forward recommendations on:

    • enhancing global understanding of the current threat to aviation while recognizing the importance of progressive aviation security enhancement;
    • increasing States' awareness of the ICAO Risk Context Statement (RCS), while recognizing the importance of adapting it to the unique situation of each State and region, as appropriate;
    • the importance of comprehensively addressing the insider threat through the processing of Amendment 17 to Annex 17 at the earliest opportunity; and
    • the need for a global framework for better threat information sharing.


a) Promoting security culture

b) Fostering resilience of aviation security systems

c) Review of mechanisms to respond to new and evolving threats

d) Addressing cybersecurity

The Conference will discuss ways to ensure the promotion of effective security culture across all States and within every organization, which would contribute to preventing future acts of unlawful interference. However, it is also important that crisis response capabilities are at optimal levels when crisis events in aviation security do occur. Accordingly, the Conference will consider how the aviation security system could be more resilient against threats by having appropriate countermeasures and recognizing the value that exercises can bring to ensuring well‑executed recovery plans. Concrete actions to address emerging issues, including remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) and chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attacks will be sought. As regards to cybersecurity, the Conference will recognize the increasing importance of sharing cyber threat information by States to improve their security posture.


The Conference will be invited to put forward recommendations on:

    • promoting security culture, and how to create one that fosters an effective national aviation security system;
    • ensuring the resilience of the aviation system to enable States and industry to quickly recover from adversity, and at the same time establish public confidence in the aviation system;
    • further addressing evolving threats such as RPAS and CBR attacks; and
    • the need for all States to share cyber threat information, including indicators of compromise, techniques and procedures used by threat actors as well as incident analyses in order to better identify, assess, monitor, and respond to such threats. 


a) Status of the Global Aviation Security Plan

b) Coordination and delivery of assistance efforts

The Global Aviation Security Plan (GASeP) is the strategic document that guides States and stakeholders towards progressive aviation security enhancement. Its Roadmap outlines goals, targets, and tasks . The Conference will be presented with results arising from the various regional conferences relating to the GASeP and will be invited to consider the status of GASeP implementation to date, as reported by Member States, industry, and ICAO, to reaffirm commitment to meeting the goals and targets set forth in the Plan. The Conference will also recommend a vision for the future evolution of the GASeP, particularly whether the contents of the Plan could be expanded to also include security-related provisions of Annex 9 (Facilitation). To ensure effective implementation of the GASeP by States and stakeholders, the Conference will also consider prioritization of assistance and capacity development requirements, based on targets and performance indicators.


The Conference will be invited to put forward recommendations on:

    • a vision for the future evolution of the GASeP;

    • the latest developments with regard to the GASeP, including a new indicator framework; and

    • ways to optimize ICAO coordination mechanisms of assistance delivery efforts by all concerned.


a) The need for complementary approaches in aviation safety and security

b) Security-related provisions of Annex 9 (Facilitation)

c) Implementation of aviation security-related resolutions of the United Nations

d) Increasing synergies through inter-agency cooperation

This agenda item focuses on achieving synergies with other areas, such as safety of air navigation, having an important influence on global aviation security. A coordinated and holistic approach should be sought for all elements of the aviation sector. Similarly, the Conference will also consider how Annex 17 (Security) and Annex 9 (Facilitation) are interlinked; for example, how border security and aviation security objectives can complement one another given that criminals and terrorists use all modes of transportation, including commercial aviation, to travel internationally across borders and to carry out their missions. In seeking synergies with other areas, the manner in which national and international action in ensuring the security and integrity of passenger identity and border controls in support of global counter‑terrorism efforts coordinated by the United Nations (UN) and under the framework of UN Security Council resolution 2309 will be reviewed, and proposals for a strategic direction on the way forward would be considered.


The Conference will be invited to put forward recommendations on:

    • improving horizontal coordination on issues that cut across aviation safety and security;
    • how to better use passenger information to inform, assist and support aviation security objectives;
    • addressing criminal activity in the aviation security environment that can lead to identification of terrorist activities; and how such information, where practicable, could be shared among relevant State agencies and jurisdictions, such as law enforcement;
    • the role of regional initiatives and partnerships in aviation security; and
    • national and international initiatives to support UN counter-terrorism efforts on aviation security.


a) Balancing effective security and passenger convenience

b) Practices that contribute to increased sustainability

c) Costs and value of security to the global economy

A significant challenge in security is to implement and ensure the appropriate level of aviation security, while also taking into consideration the acceptability of the measures themselves. The Conference will consider different approaches to security, recalling that passengers are at the heart of the aviation system. In this context, participants will recall that risk-based measures, proportionality of counter-measures and other similar best practices, can contribute significantly to the sustainability of aviation security measures. In order to ensure the sustainability of ICAO's aviation security initiatives, the Conference will consider the continuing need for financial and in-kind contributions to supplement ICAO Regular Programme Budget funds, in order to ensure that maximum efforts are made to assist States in addressing aviation security risks, and to overcome Annex 17 implementation challenges.


The Conference will be invited to put forward recommendations on:

    • the importance of continued focus to ensure passengers experience the best level of security while respecting their rights and dignity;
    • how States, ICAO and all stakeholders can collaborate to develop and implement ways and means to achieve sustainable aviation security;
    • how to best allocate resources to aviation security in order to reduce the probability of a successful attack against civil aviation, whilst recognizing that most related decisions that are made are of strategic nature; and
    • how to ensure sustainable funding, through Member States' voluntary contributions of financial and in-kind resources, to increase the reach and success of ICAO's aviation security enhancement activities.
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