ICAO Compendium of Competition Policies and Practices

The reduction by States of controls within the air transport industry, known as “liberalization” or “deregulation”, has multiplied business opportunities for air carriers and resulted in increased competition. Enhanced competition, in turn, has led many carriers to consider consolidation as a means by which to achieve economies of scale and scope and to respond to consumer demands for global networks. With heightened competition and consolidation also comes a higher risk of anticompetitive behavior. As a consequence, regulatory activity has taken place in many States. Safeguards may also be needed to ensure the effective and sustained participation of all States in the international air transport system.​​​



The Sixth Worldwide Air Transport Conference (ATConf/6), held from 18 to 22 March 2013, considered the item of fair competition and made inter alia the following recommendation: “ICAO should develop a compendium of competition policies and practices in force nationally or regionally (recommendation 2.4/1 g)”.

Accordingly, ICAO has developed this online compendium on the basis of the first draft (see References below) considered by the ICAO Air Transport Regulation Panel, during its Twelfth Meeting (ATRP/12), held from 26 to 30 May 2014. The compendium presents State Competition Profiles [see left column], developed by ICAO based on information from its Member States, collected in the framework of a survey carried out in June 2015. 


Please click here: ICAO Competition Compendium (Jan. 2017).pdf for the latest (January 2017) status report on the coverage and enhanced features of the ICAO Competition Compendium.


The areas covered in the ICAO Competition Compendium are the following:

  1. Competition policies

    This part includes information on general competition laws, regulations and/or policies applicable to air transport activities. Among the existing variety of such competition rules developed by States or regional groupings, the following areas are identified separately whenever possible: cooperation arrangementsabuse of dominance and monopolymerger controlState aid. Aviation-specific competition laws, regulations, and/or policies are described whenever available.
  2. Competition practices

    Practices here include any regulatory practices or action by States or regional bodies, other than national/regional laws and regulations, aimed at, or having the effect of, addressing competition-related issues, including, but not limited to, regulatory arrangements under bilateral air services agreementscooperation arrangements between States/regions for dealing with competition matters, and model clauses on fair competition.
  3. Competition government agencies

    In this part is provided information on Government agencies involved in enforcing competition laws, regulations, and/or policies.

This non-exhaustive compendium was developed with a view to provide easy and quick access to relevant information. Whenever possible, hyperlinks have been inserted as references. In certain cases, the material is only available in a language other than English.


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