THE POSTAL HISTORY OF ICAO

 

ICAO and the International Labour Organization

 

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) dedicated to improving labor conditions and living standards throughout the world. The ILO secretariat (staff) is referred to as the International Labour Office.

 

Switzerland – 1928

Regular overprint for the ILO

The ILO has its roots in the social matrix of nineteenth-century Europe and North America. It is in these regions where the industrial revolution began, generating extraordinary economic development, though often at the price of intolerable human suffering and social unrest. Humanitarian, political and economic motives for international labour standards led to the foundation of the ILO. The ILO Constitution was written between January and April 1919 by the Commission on International Labour, constituted by the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, to reflect the belief that universal and lasting peace can be accomplished only if it is based on social justice. The Constitution contained ideas tested within the International Association for Labour Legislation, founded in Basel in 1901.

 

At its origin, the ILO was an affiliated agency of the League of Nations, the forerunner of the United Nations between the two world wars. During the twenty-year period from 1919 to 1939, 67 Conventions and 66 Recommendations were adopted by ILO. The ILO is the only surviving major creation of the Treaty of Versailles.

 

Detailed arrangements concerning the privileges and immunities of the League of Nations were worked out between the Secretary-General of the League and the Swiss Federal Council, through the "Modus Vivendi" of 1921, as supplemented by the "Modus Vivendi" of 1926. An agreement was concluded on 11 March 1946 between the Swiss Authorities and the ILO to regulate the legal status of the International Labour Organisation in Switzerland after the dissolution of the League of Nations. Under those agreements, the Swiss Post Office overprinted stamps (or issued special stamps) primarily for the official use by the ILO. 

 

ILO Emblem – The letters are surrounded by an interrupted cogwheel, reflecting the tripartite structure. Adopted in 1969 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary.

In 1944, Delegates to the International Labour Conference adopted the Declaration of Philadelphia, USA, which, annexed to the Constitution, still constitutes the Charter of the aims and objectives of the ILO. In 1946, the ILO became the first specialized agency of the newly formed United Nations. In 1969, while it commemorated its 50th anniversary, the Organization received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving peace among classes, pursuing justice for workers, and providing technical assistance to other developing nations.

 

The ILO has always been a unique forum in which the governments and social partners of its member States can freely and openly discuss experiences and compare national policies. Its tripartite structure makes the ILO unique among world organizations in that employers’ and workers’ organizations have an equal voice with governments in shaping its policies and programmes.

 

ILO has been headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland since 1920, except the period 1940-1948, when it was located in Montréal. ILO’s Governing Body had made the necessary arrangements to ensure that activities continued even in the event of war. The fact that Switzerland was surrounded by German occupation troops nevertheless placed the Organization in a precarious situation and left it with no choice but to establish a centre of activity outside Geneva. The ILO Director, John G. Winant, was adamant that it should not become the instrument of totalitarian States. In August 1940, with the outbreak of the Second World War, on the generous invitations of the Government of Canada and McGill University, the Canadian Government officially agreed to the temporary transfer of ILO staff. Forty staff members from 18 countries were transferred. Another group remained in Geneva to continue making the necessary arrangements, while the rest returned to their countries as national correspondents or were posted to branch offices with a view to collecting information of interest to the Office in connection with labour matters. ILO set up its offices at McGill’s Morrice Hall (3485 McTavish Street, Montréal) from August to November 1940 and then at 3480 University Street until 1948 when ILO moved back to Geneva. During the war, ILO maintained offices in Geneva, New Delhi and Caracas.

 

A commemorative plaque was unveiled at McGill University (in Sir William Dawson Hall) in Montréal on 14 September 1950, recording the lasting gratitude of ILO to McGill University: “To this campus the International Labour Organisation transferred its wartime headquarters in 1940 on the generous invitations of the Government of Canada and McGill University. From here the I.L.O. directed its work of furthering world peace through social justice until 1948. This tablet records the lasting gratitude of the I.L.O. to McGill University”.

 

On various occasions, discussions had been held between ICAO and IL0 on the respective responsibilities and interests of the two Organizations in regard to conditions of employment in civil aviation. Those aspects of employment conditions affecting the safety or reliability of service obviously fell within ICAO’s field of action, while the social aspects were of interest to ILO, but the two aspects are not always readily separable in particular cases. 

 

A Memorandum of Understanding between the Director-General of the ILO and the President of the ICAO Council was signed in October 1953 concerning the establishment by ILO of a Joint Aviation Commission which had been submitted to them by the International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) for the purpose of advising ILO on questions within its competence. ILO and ICAO would continue to be represented at each other's meetings as necessary and consult each other regularly for the fullest interchange of information and views on matters of common interest. The trend of discussion in the IL0 Governing Body favored the convening of ad hoc meetings to discuss employment or working conditions in civil aviation, rather than the creation of a permanent committee as originally proposed.

 

ILO has been a powerful force since the 1920s for raising and maintaining the living and working standards of workers round the world and is guided by the principle that social stability and integration can be sustained only if they are based on social justice, particularly the right to employment with fair compensation for a healthy work-place.

 

28 February 1944 – Service cover from ILO Headquarters in Montréal (at 3480 University Street) to remaining office in Geneva.

 

Card sent from ICAO to ILO’s Head office located at 3480 University Street, requesting comments on the quality of shipping as a new wrapping machine was installed at ICAO Headquarters.

 

Taiwan, China – 15 June 1959 – 40th anniversary of ILO

The cachet makes reference to the tripartite structure of the ILO and shows ILO’s emblem as designed at the origin when the Organization was founded in 1946.

 

Mail sent to Dr. Warner on service cover from the International Labour Office, Geneva. 

Postmarked on 14 November 1954.

 

Argentina – Second Thematic Philatelic Exhibition (TEMEX ’60) held in Buenos Aires from 4 from 9 December 1960. During this exhibition, a total of 12 covers were released paying tribute to the United Nations, its Programmes and Specialized Agencies; all covers are similar, except for the emblem, the colors of the UN Buildings in New York and the date of release. These covers were issued on different dates ranging from 4 to 9 December 1960; the above cover related to ILO was dated 9 December 1960.

 

Togo – ILO’s 50th anniversary. Miniature sheet issued on 24 January 1970.

The English acronym in the emblem is ILO, whereas it becomes OIT when used for the French (Organisation internationale du Travail) and Spanish (Organización Internacional del Trabajo) names of the Organization.

 

Service cover sent to ICAO from a Technical Assistance project through the UN pouch.

Postmark dated 24 December 1970.

Slogan showing the first anniversary of award of the Nobel Peace Prize to ILO in 1969.

 

Philippines – 24 October 1994 - United Nations Day

The United Nations commemorated the 75th Anniversary of the International Labour Organization (ILO), along with the International Year of the Family in 1994 and the 50th anniversary of ICAO.

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