Annex 13 - Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation


Developed by ICAO, the International Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) contained in the nineteen Technical Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (also called Chicago Convention) are applied universally and produce a high degree of technical uniformity which has enabled international civil aviation to develop in a safe, orderly and efficient manner.


Although civil transport is considered to be the safest means of transport, air navigation is an activity facing many potential dangers. The international character of civil aviation necessitated the development of law that would make sure that any accident or incident of an aircraft anywhere in the world would be subject of investigation.


According to the provisions laid down in ICAO Annex 13 to the International Civil Aviation Convention - Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation, States shall investigate or delegate the investigation of accidents which have occurred in their territory. Serious incidents should be investigated by States or by other organizations, such as dedicated accident/incident investigation bodies or aviation service provider organizations. When an accident happens involving an international civil aviation flight, Annex 13 sets out the rules on the notification, investigation and reporting of the accident. It sets out the rights on who should conduct the investigation, which are the parties who can be involved, what rights does each party have, how should the investigation be conducted, and how the final results should be reported. Annex 13 also states that the sole objective of the investigation of an accident or incident is to prevent accidents and incidents and that the investigation is not to apportion blame or liability.


When PICAO came into existence in 1945, Technical Divisions composed of specialists from Members States and of observers from organizations interested in international civil aviation, assisted by the Organization’s Secretariat, were directed and coordinated by the two committees of the PICAO Council, i.e. the Air Navigation Committee and the Air Transport Committee. The Search and Rescue Division (SAR) and the Accident Investigation Division (AIG) were responsible for the preparation of texts designed to replace the original Annex L to the Chicago Convention named: Search and rescue, and investigation of accidents.


The AIG Division held its first Session (8 meetings) from 22 January to 21 February 1946 and prepared recommendations which were further developed at its Second Session held from 4 to 17 February 1947. The first edition of Annex 13 named Aircraft Accident Inquiry was first adopted by the Council on 11 April 1951.


Annex 13 – Front Page

The title of Annex 13 was changed to Aircraft Accident Investigation with adoption of the 4th edition on 18 December 1975 further to the meeting held by the Accident Investigation and Prevention Divisional Meeting (AIG/1974, held in Montréal from 3 to 24 June 1974). The latter Meeting noted that in many States the word “Inquiry” had judicial connotations, which seemed undesirable in Annex 13 mainly concerned with technical considerations. In addition, it noted that these judicial connotations could be considered as falling solely within the national jurisdiction of States and were therefore inappropriate to ICAO provisions. There was a clear consensus at AIG/1974 that accident prevention was the fundamental objective of an accident investigation and that it was not the purpose of an investigation to apportion blame or liability. The Meeting also noted that the use of the two words “Inquiry” and “Investigation” had in the past caused problems in the formulation and understanding of Annex 13 as well as difficulties in interpretation.


The 8th edition of Annex 13, which stemmed from the recommendations of the Accident Investigation Divisional Meeting (AIG/1992, held in Montréal from 11 to 28 February 1992), was adopted by the Council on 23 March 1994 and the title was changed to Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation. This major amendment broadened the applicability of the Annex to domestic as well as international accidents, and it introduced requirements for notification and investigation of serious incidents. It strengthened the entitlements and obligations of accredited representatives and their advisers, as well as the rights for operators and States of Design and Manufacture to participate in investigations. It also re-emphasized the need, for accident prevention purposes, to separate accident investigations from judicial or legal processes in order to prevent thorough and competent technical investigations from being impeded. The provision for complete autopsies was strengthened including emphasis on the need for toxicological examinations. According to the definitions of Annex 5, an incident is defined as an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation.


Later, amendments to Annex 13 were required as a result of recommendations of the Air Navigation Commission or Accident Investigation and Prevention (AIG) Divisional Meetings or Assembly Resolutions or ICAO Safety Panels, etc.


Annex 13 provides for Accident Data Report, i.e. a detailed final report prepared by the State instituting the investigation and distributed with maximum dispatch to Contracting States together with any safety recommendations, as the entire aviation community has a vested interest in the results of any aviation accident investigation anywhere in the world. Computerized databases greatly facilitate the storing and analysing of information on accidents and incidents. The sharing of such safety information is regarded as vital to accident prevention. ICAO operates a computerized database known as the Accident/Incident Data Reporting (ADREP) system, which facilitates the exchange of safety information among Contracting States.


Responsibility for an investigation belongs to the State in which the accident or incident occurred. That State usually conducts the investigation, but it may delegate all or part of the investigation to another State. If the occurrence takes place outside the territory of any State, the State of registry of the aircraft has the responsibility to conduct the investigation. The international standards and procedures outlined in Annex 13 are complemented by ICAO Doc 9756 - Manual of Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation and ICAO Doc 9156 - Accident/Incident Reporting Manual.


A crash cover (see example here-below) is a philatelic term designating an envelope that has been recovered from an airplane crash or interrupted flight. Aviation related crash covers are a specialized collecting area of aero-philately and are much-prized items of postal history, because they are generally rare, but tangible artefacts of often-tragic accidents or incidents; they have a story to tell.


Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises – 2 January 2011

The triptych refers to the first airmail route between France and Madagascar and the Juan de Nova airplane accident occurred in 1929.
In just over 10 days, the crew made
​​up of three men Captain Marcel Goulette, Pilot René Marchesseau and Mechanic Jean Michel Bourgeois on board of a Farman 190 F-AJJB airplane (see stamp on the left) landed in Antananarivo (from Paris Le Bourget Airport) on 27 October 1929.
On 8 December 1929, the plane flew back to Paris with on board many letters commemorating this first airmail route. But a fuel leak forced the crew to land in emergency (with a damaged propeller) on the Juan de Nova Island in the Mozambique Channel (see map of the region in the middle).
The letters on board (transferred to a steamer to continue the journey by sea) then received various mentions testifying to this accident; an example is reproduced on the stamp to the right (with the crew and aircraft in the background).



Mail salvaged from the crash of the Lockheed L-749A Constellation named Belfast of British Overseas Airways Corporation - BOAC (registered G-ALAM, pilot Trevor W. Hoyle).

On 13 March 1954, this aircraft flew from Sydney to London, with intermediate stopping points. Having taken off at Jakarta, Indonesia, the aircraft crashed and caught fire on the approach to Kallang Airport, Singapore with a loss of a large number of passengers.

The salvaged mail received the red boxed three-line cachet:  SALVAGED MAIL / AIRCRAFT CRASH / SINGAPORE 13.3.1954.