A measure of the State’s safety oversight capability and an indication of a State’s degree of compliance with ICAO provisions. It is measured through ICAO’s Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) and calculated for each critical element, audit area or as an overall measure. It is expressed as a percentage.
Number of inspections conducted on the runways; includes inspection of the runway lights, signs and markings, vegetation, obstruction of signs, runway surface condition, etc.
Inspections are important as they allow early detection of non-compliances. The indicator helps assess the effective implementation of runway inspections schedule within the organization.
Number of accidents per 1,000,000 flights.
The accident rate is an overall indicator of safety performance.
Limitations may be introduced depending on the availability of traffic data. May only be applicable to States or regions with high traffic (with 1,000,000 flights in a given period).
Number of accidents as defined in ICAO Annex 13 to the Chicago Convention.
Number of accidents is an overall indicator of safety performance.
Number of fatalities per 1,000,000,000 passengers.
The fatality rate provides an overall indicator of safety performance.
Limitations may be introduced depending on the availability of passenger data. May only be applicable to States or regions with high traffic.
Number of fatalities in the aircraft or on the ground as a result of an accident.
Number of fatalities provides an overall indicator of safety performance.
Number of occurrences related to runway safety, including excursions, incursions, abnormal runway contact (ARC), undershoot, overshoot, foreign object damage (FOD).
Number of runway safety occurrences provides an overall indicator of safety performance.
Limitations may be introduced depending on the availability of voluntary reporting data.
Number of occurrences related to wildlife strikes, such as birds and other species by occurrence class and in various flight phases.
Number of wildlife strikes provides an overall indicator of safety performance.
Percentage of landings over 1000 feet from threshold.
This indicator helps measure the risk of runway safety occurrences.
This indicator is applicable only when both the aircraft and the airport are equipped and covered by automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast (ADS-B).
Percentage of landings where the tailwind exceeded 5, 10 or 15 knots (kts).
Tailwind landings increase the risk of a runway excursion. The ground speed at touchdown will be greater than usual and any float tendency will result in a long landing. The increased stopping distance could result in a runway overrun (excursions).
Tailwind component tailwind = wind speed in kts x cos (wind direction – runway direction)
Percentage of landings with less than 3000 ft runway remaining at 60 knots (kts).
Runway remaining = (number of landings with less than 3000 ft runway remaining at 60 kts / total number of landings) x 100
Number of loss of separations between IFR flights.
A primary responsibility of an ANSP is to provide separation between IFR aircraft. As such, IFR-IFR losses of separation (IFR-IFR LOS) are one of the most critical safety issues under analysis on a global scale.
Reporting methods (automatic or manual) and the way they are utilized are different across ANSPs.Attribution of IFR-IFR LOS to ATM Ground versus ATM Airborne is not consistent.
See attached indicator form (reference) below.
Number of LHDs occurring when an aircraft overshoots its target level by more than 300 ft.
This indicator helps identify and classify LHDs in order to assess vertical collision risk due to lack of RVSM height keeping performance. System performance monitoring is necessary to ensure that the continued operation of RVSM meets safety objectives.
This indicator is only applicable in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.Also, aircrafts must be equipped with automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) transmitter or a quick access recorder (QAR).
Number of TCAS alerts issued by advisory type.
TCAS alerts indicate potential loss of separation and the risk of midair collision.
This indicator is applicable only to aircraft/fleet equipped with TCAS.
Number of flights with emergency transponder squawk codes detected.
Emergencies are generally declared when an incident occurs during flight. Counting them is an indicator of safety.
Percentage of missed approaches.
Aircrafts must be equipped with automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) transmitter or a quick access recorder (QAR).
Missed approaches = (number of missed approaches / total number of approaches) x 100
Number of EGPWS alert events.
EGPWS alerts indicate potential risk of collision with terrain.
This indicator is applicable only to aircraft/fleet equipped with EGPWS.
Percentage of ramp inspections in a given period that resulted in no findings.
The purpose of a ramp inspection is to control safety aspects of an operation. A large number of inspections may not generate any findings. However, if the percentage of clean inspections (i.e. inspections without any findings) becomes too high, this may indicate a problem in the conduct or scope of inspection activities.
(Number of inspections with no findings / total number of inspections) x 100
Number of finding vs the number of inspections.
Findings raised during a ramp inspection indicate a safety concern. Since more inspections would be expected to generate more findings, therefore, a ratio of findings (instead of just the number of inspections) would be a more appropriate indicator for comparison.
(Total number of findings / total number of inspections) x 100
Percentage of great circle distance vs total distance flown from the entry point to the exit point within an airspace.
This indicator allows measuring and optimization of flight efficiency in terms of achieved distance in flight which in turn reduces cost and emissions.
Aircrafts must be equipped with automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) transmitter.
HFE (local) = (NX in km / total distance flown in km) x 100
NX: distance between the entry point and the exit point within the airspace
Percentage of distance achieved vs total distance flown within an airspace.
HFE (local) = [|ND – XD| in km / total distance flown in km] x 100
ND: great circle distance from the entry point N to the destination DXD: great circle distance from the exit point X to the destination D
Percentage of continuous descent vs total descent distance flown.
This indicator allows measuring and optimization of vertical flight efficiency during the descent phase which in turn reduces cost and emissions.
CDO = (sum of all distances flown in CDO in km / total descent distance flown in km) x 100