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1.  What is a State Action Plan on CO2 Emissions Reduction Activities?

State Action Plans are a voluntary planning and reporting tool for States to communicate information on their activities to address CO2 emissions from international civil aviation to ICAO. The level of detail of the information contained in an action plan will ultimately enable ICAO to compile global progress towards meeting the goals set by Assembly Resolution A37-19, and reaffirmed by A38-18 and A39-2.

2.  Why develop a State Action Plan on CO2 Emissions Reduction Activities? - The top 10 reasons

Based on States’ direct return on experience, ICAO has been able to identify the top 10 reasons for developing and submitting a State Action Plan:


        1. better understanding of the share and projections of international aviation CO2 emissions;
        2. enhanced cooperation between all aviation stakeholders that can positively reflect on their operational areas;
        3. identification of the most relevant mitigation actions;
        4. streamlining of policies;
        5. enhancing stakeholders’ support and understanding for policy decisions;
        6. establishment of cross-sectoral partnerships
        7. promotion of capacity building
        8. multiplication of the environmental effects of mitigation measures; 
        9. facilitation of technology transfer; and
        10. identification of assistance needs.

3.  Who is involved in a State Action Plan on CO2 Emissions Reduction Activities?

First, a State nominates a State Action Plan Focal Point, usually from the DGCA. He/she will coordinate the development of the State Action Plan and interact with ICAO and all of the key aviation stakeholders. These stakeholders can include:

    • aviation authorities;
    • environmental authorities;
    • airlines;
    • airports;
    • air navigation service providers;
    • statistical departments;
    • fuel providers; and
    • any other relevant stakeholders.


The degree and nature of collaboration among these stakeholders is a key aspect of successfully developing and implementing a State Action Plan. Collecting information from these stakeholders and consolidating this input into a State Action Plan ensures that the development of the plan is based on a cooperative process and that the measures contained therein are accurate, comprehensive, and feasible to implement.


4.  What does a State Action Plan on CO2 Emissions Reduction Activities contain?

At a minimum the following information is contained in a State Action Plan:


      1. Contact information for the officially nominated State Action Plan Focal Point;

      2. Baseline Scenario: Projected international aviation traffic for the State, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for the State until 2050 (without action);

      3. List of selected measures proposed for mitigating CO2 emissions from international civil aviation;

      4. Expected Results: Estimated impact of the selected mitigation measures on the baseline until 2050; and

      5. Identification of any assistance needs (financial, technological, training, etc.) for the State.


5.  What is the ICAO State Action Plan Buddy Programme?

In line with ICAO Resolution A39-2 Para 12, the ICAO State Action Plan Buddy Programme invites States that have already submitted their State Action Plan on CO2 Emissions Reduction Activities to ICAO to  partner with Member States that have not prepared their State Action Plans, in order to support those States.


States that have not yet developed, or are in the process of developing, a State Action Plan are also invited to inform ICAO of their interest in being matched with a Supporting State through the Buddy Programme.


ICAO has developed a draft agreement of cooperation aiming to establish a model framework by which ICAO Member States can help other Member State(s) to prepare and submit a State Action Plan. It aims to facilitate the development of international cooperation among ICAO Member States.


States interested in participating in the ICAO State Action Plan Buddy Programme are invited to contact ICAO at

List of State Action Plan Buddy Programme Partnerships


State providing support



Status of Action Plan

Under development

Submitted to ICAO

Posted on the ICAO website


The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia









​São Tomé and Príncipe​Cabo Verde​X
​Dominican Republic​Panama​X



6. How can ICAO help in the development of a State Action Plan on CO2 Emissions Reduction Activities?


ICAO Document 9988 -
Guidance on the Development of States’
Action Plans on CO2 Emissions Reduction Activities

​This guidance document has been developed specifically for use by the officially nominated State Action Plan Focal Point of each State. It was developed with the goal of accommodating the various levels of experience among States in the development of similar national reports. This document provides step-by-step guidance on how to develop an action plan. It is expected that in addition to facilitating the preparation of an action plan, this guide will contribute to improving the reporting of CO2  emissions and the implementation of mitigation projects for international aviation. 
A review of the guidance document is under way, to reflect the feedback received from States who developed plans based on the First Edition of this Document, feedback from ICAO Council, as well as observations from the action plans that were submitted to ICAO.


​​Web Interface​To facilitate the submission of State Action Plans and minimize the burden on States, ICAO has developed a dedicated web interface that can be used by State Focal Points to upload and submit action plans electronically. This interface is called the Action Plans for Emissions Reductions (APER) website.


This website includes:

  • Instructions for online submission;
  • Guidance Document 9988;
  • The Environmental Benefit Tool (EBT) - a tool that is designed for use by State Action Plan Focal Points to quantitatively estimate the benefits attributable to the implementation of various mitigation measures;
  • Links to the publically available tools (IFSET, ICAO Carbon Calculator); and
  • Downloadable presentations from past training seminars.

The web interface also allows States to securely upload their State Action Plans and/or additional supporting documentation directly to ICAO as electronic documents.



​ICAO proposes to States, through the Technical Cooperation Bureau (TCB), a technology transfer. Technology transfer refers to the transmission of skills, knowledge and technologies.


As example of technology transfer, ICAO provides services of international consultants and instructors and also establishment and development of Civil Aviation Training Centres (CATCs).


​​Technical Support

​​ICAO Environment Branch has developed different tools helping to calculate Carbon Emissions (ICAO Carbon Emissions Calculator, ICAO Meeting Emissions Calculator) and estimate fuel saving (ICAO Fuel Savings Estimation Tool). Furthermore, Technical Cooperation Bureau (TCB) provide technical support to States. TCB has expertise in Air Traffic Management Systems, Airport efficiency and infrastructure (i.e. Power generation, minimizing taxiing distance, etc.), and so on. For more information on TCB fields, please visit ICAO TCB website



​States can conduct some research on different topics, such as alternative fuels (for more information on alternative fuel, please visit the GFAAF website). Another good source of information is the ICAO 2016 Environmental Report. ICAO can also provide some assistance like providing data, records, etc.



​​ICAO is working to promote and develop capacity building programs, such as:

► European Union

ICAO and the European Union signed a Declaration of Intent, affirming their collaboration on assistance and capacity building activities to support measures to mitigate CO2 emissions produced by the international aviation.


The Global Environmental facility (GEF) has approved the project concept, and has earmarked  USD 2 million toward a new joint assistance initiative between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and ICAO to reduce aviation emissions.


​Support Team

Office ​​Name ​​Contact details
​​ICAO Headquarters, ATB, Environment​Ms. Chrystelle Damar​E-mail:
Tel: +1 514 954 8219 ext. 8334
​​North American, Central​ American and Caribbean (NACC)Mr. ​Luis Raúl Sánchez Vargas​​E-mail:
Tel: +52 55 5250 3211
​South American (​SAM)​​Mr. Jorge Armoa​​E-mail:
Tel: +51 1 611 8686
​​Asia and Pacific (APAC)​Mr. Peter Dunda​Email: 
Tel: +66 (0)2 537 8189
ext. 153
​Middle East (MID)​Mr. Mohamed Smaoui​​E-mail:
Tel: +202 2267 4840/ 41/ 45/46
​European and North Atlantic (​EUR NAT)​Ms. Blandine Ferrier​ (Assistance Projects)​​E-mail:
Tel: +33 1 4641 8572​
​European and North Atlantic (​EUR NAT)​​Mr. Sven Halle​​E-mail:
Tel: +33 1 46 41 85 85
​Western and Central Africa (WACAF)​Mr. Romain Ekoto

Tel: +221 33 869 24 22

​Eastern and Southern African (ESAF)​​Mr. Vitalis Ahago​​E-mail:
Tel: +254 20 762 2395/ 96




7. Seminars for State Action Plans on CO2 Emissions Reduction Activities

ICAO provides different workshops and seminars around the world. Special training can also be requested from States. By knowing States’ needs in term of training, ICAO will be able to organize more specific meetings. For any examples of seminar or symposium, please visit Assistance for Action – Aviation and Climate Change Seminar and ICAO Symposium on Aviation and Climate Change, Destination Green, and Global Aviation Partnerships on Emissions Reductions (E-GAP) Seminar

For ongoing and past seminars or workshops, please visit the following website:
To propose any requested needs, please contact ICAO at


​ICAO / AFCAC Joint Workshop on the Development of States’ Action Plans

​In line with the task given to AFCAC by the Plenary at the 26th AFCAC Extra-Ordinary Session which was held in Gaborone, Botswana from 10-11 November, 2016 to ensure that all AFCAC member States develop and submit to ICAO, their States’ Action Plans on CO2 emissions reduction activities before June 2018, the Secretariat of AFCAC liaised with ICAO, ECOWAS, and SADC to organize Workshops on the Development of States’ Action Plans on CO2 emissions mitigation activities and CORSIA specifically targeted at member States accredited to ICAO WACAF and ESAF Regions and ECOWASA and SADC member States.


Location ​Dates
​​Lagos, Nigeria​23 to 25 August 2017
​​Lusaka, Zambia​28 to 30 August 2017


​​Regional Seminars on States Action Plans, with a hands-on Tutorial Session for State Action Plan Focal Points 2017

​ICAO organized 5 Regional Seminars in 2017, with a view to provide national action plan focal points and aviation industry stakeholders with practical input on the calculation of the CO2 emissions baseline and other quantification aspects.


Region Country ​Dates
​​NACC & SAM​Rio de Janeiro, Brazil​27 to 30 March 2017
​​EUR/NAT​Bonn, Germany​3 to 6 April 2017
​​APACJakarta, Indonesia10 to 13 April 2017
​ESAF & WACAF​​Nairobi, Kenya​​10 to 13 April 2017​​
​MID​Cairo, Egypt​18 to 20 April 2017
​​​Regional States
Action Plans
2014 - 2015

​​With a view to supporting its member States in their efforts to take action on aviation and climate change, on 1 April 2014 ICAO launched a series of back-to-back ICAO “International Aviation and Environment” and “States’ Action Plans” Seminars.
These back-to-back Seminars were conducted in each ICAO Region.


​NACC​​Mexico City, Mexico​​1 to 4 April 2014
​SAM​​Lima, Peru​​7 to 10 April 2014
​WACAF​​Yaoundé, Cameroon​​10 to 13 June 2014
​ESAF​​Nairobi, Kenya​16 to 19 June 2014
​APAC​​Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia​October 2014
​MID​​Dubai, United Arab Emirates​February 2015
​EUR/NAT​Warsaw, Poland​Spring 2015
​ICAO HQ​​Montreal, Canada​Autumn 2015


Regional hands-on
training workshops
2011 - 2012

​​Between 2011 and 2012, ICAO organized several regional training workshops, during which 91 States representing 93% of global international air traffic were trained (see table and Figure 1). During these workshops, focal points were trained to use the action plan template and the Web interface, and were asked to provide feedback on Doc 9988. ICAO also worked directly with individual States and national action plan focal points to assist in the development of action plans.

​NACC & SAM​​Mexico City, Mexico​​2 to 4 May 2011
​APAC​​Bangkok, Thailand​​25 to 27 May 2011
​MID​Dubai, United Arab Emirates​​14 to 16 June 2011
​ESAF & WACAF​​Nairobi, Kenya​​4 to 6 July 2011
​EUR/NATParis, France ​​​11 to 13 July 2011
​ICAO HQ​​Montréal, Canada​​21 to 23 November  2011
​ESAF & WACAF​​Dakar, Senegal ​24 to 26 September 2012