ICAO Requirements and Guidance
The successful treatment of ice and snow deposits on aeroplanes on the ground is an absolute necessity to the safety of winter operations. Requirements and guidance can be found in the following ICAO documents:
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft, Part I — International Commercial Air Transport — AeroplanesReferences to ground de-icing/anti-icing are in Part I, 18.104.22.168 with a requirement for de-icing/anti-icing treatment and inspection prior to take-off in suspected or known ground icing conditions:
Part I, Appendix 2, 5.6 requires instructions for the conduct and control of ground de-icing/anti-icing operations to be included in an operator's Operations Manual.
The Preparation of an Operations Manual (Doc 9376) Second Edition 1997, 8.7.3 also provides guidance on the content of an operations manual with respect to de-icing/anti-icing operations.
Annex 14 — Aerodromes, Volume I — Aerodrome Design and Operations and the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2 — Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays (Doc 9157) also contain references to ground de-icing/anti-icing requirements.
The Manual of Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations (Doc 9640) Second Edition 2000, provides a general description of the various factors relating to aeroplane icing on the ground. It addresses the minimum procedural requirements necessary to conduct safe and efficient operations during those conditions which require aeroplane de-icing and anti-icing activities. The "clean aircraft concept" is described. The second edition refers to Types I, II, III and IV fluids and also to methods for de-icing which do not use fluids. Examples of application and holdover time tables are provided for Types I, II and IV fluids. The second edition also contains material on equipment, quality assurance programmes and the annual updating of holdover time guidelines and de-icing/anti-icing procedures. The primary purpose in the publication of this manual was to encourage international standardization of de-icing/anti-icing activities.
These documents can be purchased directly from ICAO through the ICAO Store. Training and qualification of de-icing personnel is the responsibility of the operators and the States concerned. ICAO does not have requirements concerning the licensing of personnel for the conduct of de-icing/anti-icing operations.
Holdover times and procedures are continually updated by an international group of experts under the auspices of the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) G-12 Committee on Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing through its Holdover Time Subcommittee. This group of experts is composed of representatives of the world's airlines, anti-icing fluid manufacturers, aviation regulatory authorities and research organizations.
De-icing/anti-icing fluids are qualified to the appropriate specification by certified laboratories. Qualified fluids are tested jointly by the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Transport Canada to establish the fluid endurance time data, from which the holdover time guidelines are generated by the Holdover Time Subcommittee. The de-icing/anti-icing procedures are developed by the Methods Subcommittee. The holdover time guidelines and procedures are approved by the SAE Aerospace Council.
The approved documents are published by: Transport Canada in an Advisory Circular; the United States FAA in a Flight Standards Information Bulletin for Air Transportation (FSAT); the SAE in Aerospace Recommended Procedure ARP 4737; and the International Standards Organization (ISO) in ISO 11076.
The FAA and Transport Canada publications are published annually and are usually available prior to the start of winter in the Northern Hemisphere. The FAA and Transport Canada also publish a list of qualified de-icing/anti-icing fluids, together with holdover time guidelines for specific fluids that have superior performance to the generic tables.
Links to other sites:
Knowing in which conditions aircraft icing can occur, how to detect it, appropriate measures to be taken and recovery techniques in case of wing or tail plane stall is crucial for the safe operation of aircraft. There is training material in various media which is available either freely or for sale. To increase the level of pilot proficiency in this subject, ICAO is providing information on training material available to the aviation community.
If you would like to have training material listed on this page, please provide us with a complimentary copy for evaluation.
Please note that ICAO does not approve or recommend any information or training material listed below. ICAO accepts no responsibility or liability whether direct or indirect, as to the currency, accuracy or quality of the information, or for any consequences of its use.
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