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To promote the development of a sustainable bio-kerosene industry in Spain through the implementation of the entire value chain, using second generation sustainable crops as feedstock, giving priority to raw materials that minimize environmental impact, land use changes and the competition with food production markets.
To comply with the requirements of the European Union:
- Employment in 2020 at least a 10% of energy from renewable sources in the transport sector.
- Reduction of GHG emissions with the European Emissions Trading System (EU – ETS, Directive 2008/101/EC).
Type of pathway
Oilseeds; hydroprocessing; Others
Starting time and duration
2010 - beyond 2014
Ministries, national agencies, industry, airlines, NGO
The Spanish Initiative for the Production and Consumption of Bio-kerosene for Aviation (so-called Bioqueroseno.es initiative) is a national program, led by the Spanish government involving actors from the full value chain in a public-private partnership.
The development of the Initiative has been raised in 3 stages:
The Initiative provides a framework for information exchanges among National Authorities and stakeholders. It facilitates both synergies between industrial partners and connection with other international initiatives which develop the production and consumption of bio – kerosene.
- Feasibility Study (2010-2012): pre - analysis of the environmental, social and economic feasibility of the production chain and consumption of bio – kerosene.
- Demonstration (2012-2013): to develop the demonstrating of the most promising processes according with the results of the Feasibility study, including feedstock scale-up, analysis of grain, oil and bio – kerosene transport and a bio-jet-fuel demonstration plant. An environmental, economic and social analysis will be done, considering the sustainability certification under recognized standards such as RSB (Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels).
- Implementation (2014 onwards): to develop the implementation and temporary scaling of the bio – kerosene production process.
Partners Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce, Spanish Ministry of Transport, Spanish Ministry of Environment and Agriculture, IDAE (Spanish Institute for Diversification and Energy Saving), AESA (Spanish Air Safety State), OBSA (Observatory of Sustainability in Aviation) from SENASA (Services and Studies for Air Navigation and Aeronautical Safety), Airbus, Camelina Company España, Tecbio, Repsol, Cepsa, UOP, Tecnalia, CLH, Iberia, Aena Aeropuertos, Pulmantur Air, Ciemat, RSB, Kurata Systems.
|Achievements to date|
The work done during the first phase was focused mainly on the local production of bio kerosene from camelina oil as row material. Today there is not any industrial scale production of non – food 2nd generation vegetal oil energy crops in Europe.
The conclusions drawn from the first phase of research have been clear. They conclude with the potential feasibility of developing a Spanish industry of bio - kerosene for aviation including its economic competitiveness with the traditional kerosene in the foreseeable scenarios of future prices of fuel in the year 2020.
- Socioeconomic Feasibility: the first data provide “promising” differences in the potential sale price of bio - kerosene in regards to traditional fuel, having considered the factor of zero emission with which bio - kerosenes will calculate in the Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS). From the social point of view, it is found out several benefits derived from the potential of creating employment, and rural development, derived from growth of raw materials in marginal fields or currently abandoned fields.
- Industrial feasibility: technology of HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil) refining which counts on the standard approval of ASTM certification that allows a use up to 50% of paraffinic bio - kerosenes in the mixtures for aviation. It is feasible transforming or revamping the existing refining plants in order to reduce implementation costs.
- Environmental Feasibility: compliance with the criteria of the DER 2009/28/EC and RD 1597/2011, as well as the requirements for GHG reduction of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) standard.