The results of the audit follow-up visits demonstrated that, overall, States had made improvements in their obligations to meet Annex 17 Standards. However, varying levels of improvement were identified between regions, and, in many cases, between States within a region. States having difficulties in addressing deficiencies identified during an audit were offered the opportunity to request assistance from ICAO through the Implementation Support and Development (ISD) Programme ‑ Security in coordination with the Technical Co-operation Programme.
In recognizing that the USAP had proven to be instrumental in identifying aviation security concerns and providing recommendations for their resolution, the 36th Session of the ICAO Assembly, in Resolution A36-20: Consolidated statement of continuing ICAO policies related to the safeguarding of international civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference, since superseded by Assembly Resolution A37-17, requested the ICAO Council to ensure the continuation of the USAP following the initial cycle of audits at the end of 2007.
Aviation security audits under the ongoing ICAO USAP second cycle commenced in January 2008. The primary objectives of the second-cycle audits are to:
a)  determine the State’s capability for aviation security oversight by assessing whether the critical elements of an aviation security oversight system have been implemented effectively;


b)  determine the State’s degree of compliance with Annex 17 Standards and the security‑related provisions of Annex 9;
c)   assess the State’s adherence to security procedures, guidance material and security‑related practices associated with the relevant ICAO SARPs; and


d)   provide recommendations to the audited State on how to improve its aviation security system and security oversight capabilities.