Thank you Mr. Chairman. This agenda item focuses on the human resource component of CNS/ATM systems. The associated working papers that will be introduced do the following:
Working paper 13 outlines a proposal for a global strategy towards human factors and training.
Working paper 60 recommends that we note certain activities in Europe while simultaneously encouraging an exchange of training information and identifying regional focal points.
The introduction of these papers will be integrated into our presentations this morning, so let's get started.
Over the past few years we have learned a great deal about human factors and training but perhaps the most important lesson we have learned is that these two areas should not be considered independently from the implementation of new systems and technologies. Instead, the consideration of human factors issues and training should form an integral part of any plan to implement new technologies. The safety implications of this pro-active approach towards human factors and training are already well proven and, for the most part, understood by the aviation community. But the economic impact of a pro-active approach towards these issues may not be as well understood. So we find ourselves at a pivotal moment in time for the global introduction of the systems. As we begin to introduce the new CNS systems, and build a new global air traffic management system, we have a unique opportunity in aviation history to implement a strategy towards human factors and training that not only enhances safety, but also makes good business sense.
Historically, human factors issues in aviation have been dealt with in a reactive manner, following identifications of shortcomings in human performance that have been linked to accidents and incidents. This usually led to remedial actions, such as increasing training or developing further regulations.
CNS/ATM systems are technology-intensive, and their safest and most efficient performance is predicated upon the correct utilization of technology, as intended by its designers. However, operational feedback suggests that the implications of some human-machine interface problems have yet to be fully considered.
The most important human factors issue in regards to human-machine interface is the ability of the human operator to maintain situational awareness. A by-product of degraded situational awareness is the mode error. This is a problem which can only exist at the intersection of humans and technology, when the interface linking them is not friendly. Mode errors are joint human-machine system breakdowns, since it takes a human to lose track of the current machine configuration, and a machine which interprets the human's input differently from that intended. If the "joint human-machine system" is duly considered, mode errors can be pro-actively anticipated and eliminated during design.
Human-machine interface design issues can be addressed during the design stage of the system; or after system implementation in the operational context. The second alternative has been traditionally favoured by aviation.
The decision of which alternative to pursue has significant financial implications beyond the obvious safety-based considerations. Involving human factors expertise during technology design might incur additional initial expenses, but the costs are paid only once in the system's lifetime. Coping with flawed human-machine interfaces through training means constantly paying for more training on a routine basis.
ICAO supports a pro-active approach to the management of human factors issues in CNS/ATM systems. To this effect, and under the activities of its Flight Safety and Human Factors Programme, we have developed human factors Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for inclusion in the Annexes to the Chicago Convention. These SARPs pro-actively address human factors issues relevant to the certification processes of equipment, procedures and personnel.
Now I would like to turn to the training component of Working Paper 13. A primary objective of the ICAO human resource planning and training needs task is to analyse the changes to civil aviation job profiles as a result of new systems, and determine the consequential human resource planning and training requirements. In pursuit of this objective ICAO has just completed an initial survey that is intended to quantify the training needs associated with CNS/ATM systems implementation. The aim was to classify the amount of change that would occur, with the introduction of the new technologies, in the major jobs of civil aviation.
Job changes were categorized into three different levels: no change, minor change and major change. To improve the objectivity of the survey, the respondents were given a criteria based on the type of training that would be necessary to impart the new job skills required. The criteria specified that the training required for a minor change in a job could be carried out by a single organization through limited classroom training, on-the-job training or a distance-learning programme. A major change to a job means that there were sufficient changes that the very nature of the job profile or job description would be new and would require formal training.
The results indicate that of the 83 job categories reviewed, 48 per cent will have a minor change and 27 per cent can be expected to have a major change. We further broke this down and studied only those jobs that are involved in supporting the services and facilities specified in an ICAO Regional Air Navigation Plan. Nearly three fourths of civil aviation jobs involved in the infrastructure of international civil aviation can be expected to change as a result of the full implementation of CNS/ATM technologies.
If the training development and implementation is carried out on a State by State basis, the economic impact to an individual State could be enormous, and the magnitude of the work may prevent a State from implementing the systems on a timely basis. The cornerstone of the ICAO training strategy, therefore, is international co-operation in the development and implementation of the training required.
The ICAO strategy consists of the following three elements:
1. An early identification of CNS/ATM training needs and priorities.
2. Co-ordination and planning of CNS/ATM training development and implementation at the regional level. There are existing structures within the ICAO Regions that would be appropriate for this type of co-ordination and planning.
3. Widest possible participation in the ICAO TRAINAIR Programme by States. The TRAINAIR Programme offers a well established framework for global co-ordination, sharing and harmonization in training development. Working paper number 34 describes this programme in more detail.
It is economically justifiable to conduct some types of training in a majority of States within any region. However, there are also other types of specialized training where it is difficult, if not impossible, for a single State to support the development and implementation of specialized training to meet national training needs alone. Thus the "Regional Training Centre" concept has been, and still is, an effective and cost-efficient approach to meet these needs. In the future, however, the planning method for regional training capabilities should be enhanced. The basis for planning regional training capabilities should be founded on States' aggregate demand within a region for human resources in the various aviation disciplines. Decisions concerning the "regional courses" should also be assessed regularly and co-ordinated through a regional planning body.
Regional planning itself is a core activity of ICAO. Air Navigation Plans set forth in detail the facilities, services and procedures required for international air navigation within a specified area. While the human resources and training requirements associated with the implementation of the Regional Air Navigation Plans are discussed during regional air navigation meetings, they have never been incorporated into the plan itself. I believe that consideration should be given to a systems approach towards regional air navigation planning in which training forms an integral part of each plan.
To reinforce these concepts and to convince you of the need for a global strategy we have organized a series of presentations by six experts who will address human factors and training issues associated with CNS/ATM systems. Our panel consists of a cross-section of people from organisations that will have a direct involvement in CNS/ATM human factors and training issues. Today's speakers include the end-users of the technologies; a representative of industry; and one from a multi-national organization; and two representatives from two civil aviation training institutions. After each presentation, there will be a question and answer period. The conclusions and recommendations, as proposed in working papers will be considered after the presentations.